In November we celebrate in Mexico the anniversary of the Mexican Revolution: One hundred years after our independence from Spain and in spite of the progress made during the Administration of President Porfirio Díaz, the Mexican people still lived in poverty and the government favored selected groups, different groups of people fought for a better government for Mexico. The revolution attempted to give a new life to the indigenous, the farmer, the rancher, the workers and the lower middle classes.

每年11月,墨西哥庆祝“墨西哥革命”。墨西哥从西班牙殖民独立出来已过百年,尽管波费里奥·迪亚斯总统执政期间取得的巨大进步,墨西哥人们仍处于贫困之中,政府让局部人受益,不同的墨西哥群体聚集起来,为更好的政府抗争!革命旨在为土著民、农民、牧场主、工人和中下层阶级新生活!

 

During that period of history there were so many social changes in all areas of the daily life, including the gastronomy. The strong influence of the French cuisine, that took place during the presidency of President Díaz, was left apart and the traditional Mexican Cuisine and its roots, based on the use of corn, beans and chili was uplifted. This is how our cuisine helped in building our nation and our Mexican identity.

这段历史时期,社会各个领域都在发生着变化,包括美食!波费里奥·迪亚斯总统执政期间法国美食逐渐被取代,墨西哥传统以玉米、豆类和辣椒为基础的美食成为主流。这也是美食发展成为墨西哥重要的民族象征!

 

During the war, the movement of the troops, food shortages and lack of ingredients caused mayor changes in the diet of Mexicans, though a new and improvised cuisine was born. In this process the “Adelitas”, which were heroic women who accompanied the troops and as them fought the enemy but also prepared the food, took care of the sick and healed the wounded and had many other functions, were fundamental.

战争期间,随着军队运动,造成墨西哥食物材料和调料的短缺,也给墨西哥美食带来了更大变化,一种临时快速烹饪的美食诞生了。“Adelitas”随军的妇女在与敌人斗争的同时,还要负责准备军人食物,照顾伤患和扮演其他重要角色。

 

These women carried with them species, pots, griddles, grinding stones (metates) and other tools. Improvising their kitchens in the military camps, and from there came the dishes that fed the soldiers.

随军妇女携带罐子、磨石等炊具,在军营厨房为士兵准备食物。

 

The typical Mexican snacks “antojitos" made from corn were the most popular prepared dishes by them, also new dishes were invented like the “discadas” a combination of meats, bacon, ham, pork sausage, onion, peppers and tomato, cooked on the disk of a plow and served with fresh made tortillas.

传统墨西哥小吃“antojitos”正是出自她们之手,还诞生了许多新的菜式如“discadas”,糅合了肉、培根、火腿、香肠、洋葱、辣椒和番茄,配以新鲜的玉米薄饼。

 

When the crops were bad, they fished trouts and cooked them wrapped in avocado, corn or banana leaves. In the coastal zones fishes like sea bass, red snapper and tilapia were consumed as they were available for everybody. On the lake areas they adopted new ingredients, like, grasshoppers, jumiles that are a very nutritious insects, frogs, salamanders and chubs.

当庄家坏掉的时候,他们钓鱼搭配牛油果,玉米或者香蕉叶。行军到沿海地区时,海鱼如鲈鱼、红鲷鱼和罗非鱼等作为主食,在内陆湖区域,蚱蜢、跳虫等昆虫,青蛙和蝾螈等也被当作食材。

 

The victories of the army were celebrated with dishes such as mole, wedding roast, barbecue, tacos, beans, and many others, all of them splashed with improvisation and scarcity.

战役获胜时,士兵烤鼹鼠,烤肉,炸玉米饼,烤豆和其他美食,运用稀缺的食材创造出不同美食。

 

In some cases, when the revolutionary forces won some battles, pieces of land were allocated to the soldiers, there they planted the traditional “milpas”, a corn field where also grew beans, squash, squash blossom, peppers, epazote and quelites.

有些时期,一些战役获胜时,士兵分配得到一些土地,他们种植传统的“milpas”,玉米、豆类、南瓜和胡椒等食材

 

Of the most popular dishes during the Revolution were:

革命期间有名的美食包括:

 

Mexican red rice

墨西哥红米饭

 

Boiled beans (frijoles de la olla)

煮豆

 

Tamales

玉米粽子

 

Sopes

 

Green enchiladas, stuffed with beans or vegetables.

绿辣椒酱,扮豆类和蔬菜

 

In the north of Mexico burritos stuffed with beans and rice

墨西哥北部的豆和米卷

 

Quesadillas (stuffed with squash blossom, cactus, asadero cheese, etc)

墨西哥夹饼

 

Dobladitas of green pipian, potatoes and chorizo, adobo.

 

Tlacoyos

 

Gorditas stuffed with pork rinds, green sauce, onion and cheese.

猪肉、绿色辣椒酱、洋葱和奶酪劵

 

Typical mexican sweets

墨西哥甜食

 

The famous revolutionary, Emiliano Zapata, enjoyed “atoles” ( a hot drink made from corn in a staggering variety of flavors) prepared in a copper pot made with plum or sweet corn with milk and cinnamon, sweetened with brown sugar; black coffee, a casserole named white sopup with hot sauces ; tacos of asada and longaniza (steak and a condiment sausage), tomato sauce with guajes and jumiles, beans (frijoles de la olla) tossed with cheese and tortillas.

著名革命家米利亚诺·萨帕塔(Emiliano Zapata)喜欢“atoles”(用玉米汁和其他香料制成的饮料),用牛奶和肉桂、红糖、黑咖啡制成,通常拿来配牛扒、香肠、奶酪和玉米饼等食物。

 

We haven’t stopped to consume these dishes, as a fact they are already part of our culinary culture, so we can assure that the Mexican Revolution contributed to enrich our beloved Mexican cuisine.

墨西哥人并没有停止创造新的美食,墨西哥革命丰富了墨西哥美食,成为墨西哥烹饪文化的重要部分。

 

The Mexican Revolution brought the knowledge of the different dishes that were made throughout the country, allowing that those dishes to spread through the Mexican territory. This made possible that today we have a magical panorama of flavors, smells and colors through its long and varied range of ingredients that shapes the Mexican Cuisine in a fusion of the past that is strengthened by the mixture of other cultures.

 

墨西哥革命为全国各地带来了不同的烹饪方法和创新菜肴,并随着革命进程传播全国。墨西哥美食拥有独特的风味和多彩的颜色,糅合了各式各样的食材,塑造出独特的墨西哥美食和一种混合多元的美食文化。

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